Tuesday, 18 February 2020

Importance of Bull fighting in Spain and Spanish culture





Bull fighting has come to be known as synonymous to Spain and Spanish although the culture has lot more to offer in terms of food, literature, architecture and painting!

Bullfighting is a ritual carried out in carefully prearranged steps, as called for by the tradition of the corrida, each stage with its own name which the aficionados in the crowd will know by heart. The lead roles are played by the bull and the matador in the arena. It is a ritual that requires a sacrifice - sacrifice to the death.

The matador, representing mankind and dressed for his date with death in the fantastical if impractical traje de luz, suit of lights, goads, mocks and sentences the bull to death with the estocada, the death blow, from his sword. The most spectacular estocada is the estocada recibido ('received', when the matador stands his ground and lets the enraged bull charge him) but it isn't seen that often. When the ritual is done, the bull is dead & matador triumphant. Man has defeated death - he is immortal!

Common bull-fighting terms used in Spanish  -
  • Toro -Bull
  • Plaza de toros - Bullring
  • Corrida - Bullfight
  • Matador - Star Bullfighter
  • Torero - Bullfighter 
  • Picador - Lancer (on horseback)
  • Banderillero - Bullfighter (on foot) who inserts barbed wooden decorated sticks into the bull´s neck muscle
  • Traje de luces - Suit of lights (colourful sequinned suit worn by bullfighters)
  • Veronica - A type of pass whereby the cape is drawn over the bull´s head while the man holds a posture.
  • Novillos - A novice bullfighter is called a novillero and fights not in a corrida, but in a novillada with young bulls (novillos)

  • Bull fighting has come to be known as synonymous to Spain and Spanish although the culture has lot more to offer in terms of food, literature, architecture and painting!
Palium Skills offers Spanish Language classes in Kolkata. Such classes are available during the weekday and weekends. Classes are held regularly and the faculty team is excellent!



Saturday, 15 February 2020

What are DELF exams and how to prepare for DELE and DELF exams?



DELF is a proficiency assessment test for evaluating the understanding of a candidate in the French language. It assesses on Reading, Writing, Speaking and Listening skills.
How is French language Proficiency Evaluated?
The French language proficiency tests are conducted for those native language is not
French. The French proficiency, namely, DELF, DALF, TEF, TCF, etc. offer international standard for measuring and determine who can communicate effectively on an independent and proficient level in French.

The exams are designed to assess the communicative skills of a candidate in a real-life situation, rather than the theoretical, linguistic, and formal grammatical knowledge.

Importance of French Proficiency Test
You can demonstrate your level of French competency by passing an international language test
(TEF or TCF) or by earning a diploma (DELF or DALF). Since these certifications give job seekers and employees a competitive advantage. Thus, it is a great asset to include on your resume.

Documentary proof of French language test certificate added to other requirements will put you on
your way to a smooth interview process. The test result will somehow restrict the interviewer on the
types of questions you are supposed to answer. Instead of asking you about things like “what is an
office called in French.” It is most likely that you would instead be asked, “what level did you attain in DELF/DALF? It is as a result of your French language test certification included in your qualifications.

You want to study in France or any French speaking countries? These diplomas and certifications
are recognized and accepted by French universities and institutions for undergraduate entry as well
as for postgraduate admission.

There are few more advantages like boosting one’s confidence and improving the odds if you’re
planning to immigrate to French-speaking countries. Besides, it will help you when you visit
Frenh speaking nations in Europe or Africa, Career in French, and of course, confirmation of your
French proficiency level.
DELF / DALF Exams

If you want to test your proficiency in French, there is one test you cannot afford to miss, and that’s the DELF/DALF certification tests. DELF stands for Diplôme d’Études en Langue Française while DALF stands for Diplôme Approfondi de Langue Française.

These two proficiency tests are designed for non-native French speakers as a way of certifying their
knowledge in French. Each year in the world, over 300,000 students register to take a various French
proficiency test.

The above tests are crucial, and they’re currently being administered and awarded by the French
Ministry of Education. They are acknowledged as an international benchmark test that gauges your
skill and knowledge in French.

The proficiency tests of DELF and DALF consist of six different diplomas that also meet the standard
set by the CEFR (Common European Reference Framework for Languages). Each of these diplomas
is strictly independent of one another. It means that candidates are free to register and sit for the test
of their choice.

Appearing for DELF Junior/Prime is restricted to candidates aged, whereas there are no age
restrictions on the other versions of DELF / DALF. A candidate may give several examinations
during the same session, but may not appear for two versions at the same level (e.g. DELF A1 and DELF Pro A1). One can take the same examination as many times as may be necessary for
obtaining the desired diploma. However, they may not appear for a qualification they already hold.

A person is evaluated for different proficiency tests at each level - namely reading, writing, listening, and speaking. Their proficiency level will be certified after attaining a set minimum overall pass mark.

The certificates you will obtain from DELF and DALF are valid for a lifetime and are highly respected across the world. It is even more impressive that once you pass the DALF C1 exams. Then, you never need to take any other entrance examination when entering into any French University.

The DELF/DALF tests are conducted by Center International d’études pédagogiques (CIEP) for the French Ministry of Education.



There are multiple levels of Certifications and students gradually progress from one level to another
    DELF A1: Breakthrough or beginner
    DELF A2: Waystage or elementary
    DELF B1: Threshold or intermediate
    DELF B2: Vantage or upper intermediate
    DALF C1: Effective Operational Proficiency or Advanced
    DALF C2: Mastery or proficiency (Near-native)

Each of these has its accompanying CEFR level marking, as well.

List of different French Diplomas
DELF Prim (ages 8-11) – This is an official diploma awarded by the French Ministry of Education to certify the proficiency in French as a Foreign Language of children ages 8 to 12. There are only three
levels, namely A1.1, A1, and A2. 
DELF Junior (ages 12 +) – It is a specially adapted version for juniors/teenagers of the DELF
diplomas. The levels evaluated are A1 to B2.
DELF Pro – It assesses communicative skills in familiar business situations. It allows
non-francophone adults in training or activity to enhance their French language skills in the world of
work. Total levels are four — A1, A2, B1, B2.
DELF Diplôme d’Études en Langue Française (for all age groups) – DELF is carried for levels
A1 – B2. All four exams, A1, A2, B1, and B2, necessarily have the same structure.

Where are the DELF Exam Centers in India?

The Alliance Française conducts DELF Exams at its several centers in India.
Northern India – Chandigarh, Delhi, Jaipur.
Eastern India – Kolkata.
Western India – Ahmedabad, Bhopal, Indore, Mumbai, Pune, Panjim, Vadodara,
Southern India – Bangalore, Chennai, Coimbatore, Hyderabad, Pondicherry, Mysore, Mangalore,
Trichy, and Trivandrum. Some of the test centers change every year.

When are the DELF exam dates in 2020?
 Generally, DELF exams are conducted four times in a year, i.e., March, June, September, and December. DELF Pro, DALF, DELF Prim, and DELF Junior are also conducted a few times in a year though not at every center of Alliance Française.
Get in touch with the AF center nearest to you for confirmation on the exam dates

What are the DELF exam fees in 2020?

The DELF exam fees in 2020 are
    DELF A1 and A2 (Internal – Rs 5310 / External – Rs 8,850)
    DELF B1 and B2 (Internal – Rs 5900 and External – Rs 10,620)
    DALF C1 and C2 (Internal – Rs 8260 and External – Rs 11,800)

Palium Skills offers French classes in Kolkata and the course contents are designed and customized as per international standards DELF.
If you’re interested in pursuing a French Language in classroom or online then get in touch with us. Palium Institute of Foreign Languages conducts DELF level courses in A1, A2, B1, B2.

It also offers Exam boosters to help in preparation for those appearing for their DELF exams.

Besides French, Palium also offers courses for learning Chinese, German, Japanese and Spanish languages in Kolkata.

Friday, 27 December 2019

Jobs in Foreign Embassies in India and Foreign Countries


An embassy is a premises that houses the offices of a country in another country. Every nation in the world has an embassy in another nation or hosts embassies of other nations within its country.
For embassies to perform their tasks productively, they need the favour of an ambassador and people for the essential post who represents the country concerned. Together with an escort of staff, assist the embassy to work suitably for the benefit of their parent nation. Therefore, this creates many job chances for language learners to work and help perform foreign policy tasks and political relations with the entertainer nation. 

Types Of Foreign Language Jobs Available In Embassies
Most foreign embassies bring their citizens to inhabit peak positions in their operations in another country. There are other areas where they require the favour of employees from the entertainer nation. 
Foreign language jobs in embassies are normally lucrative and the reputation of working for a foreign embassy or your country is always one to adore. In general, qualification and competence other than language are also needed.
There are several jobs you can do at the embassy using your expertise in a foreign language. You can work as a receptionist, customer support, office executive, an IT technical staff, as an administrative job, translator, interpreter, passport dealing and visas, press office job, research analyst, messengers, in logistics, under paying jobs and so on. 


How to get a job in a foreign embassy in India?
The language jobs in the embassy are very gainful job profiles. Almost all the embassies across the globe employ a local staff of the entertaining country to help a wide arrangement of jobs. Each embassy is contrasting through their rules are a bit alike.
The vital need, as in any other job, is that of a College bachelor’s degree and experience in the 
associated area. The suitability yardstick depend upon the nature of the work and responsibilities 
and functions. Although, wishes vary from masters in International relations to IT professionals. 
In almost all the cases, at least for office jobs, the candidates have to be higher in presenting expertise and communicative in local or official languages of the entertainer country.     
Since the number of new beginnings are quite restricted, therefore, to know the latest chances and apply quickly, is very much important. You can always check the official websites of the particular embassies and consulates. Apart from that, you can call the embassy human resources office, routinely check job gateways, look around through newspapers, and develop contacts who can introduce you for a job in an embassy.
The jobs are for both lasting and short-term positions. The device is to get an entry-level job even on a legitimate or non-permanent basis. It is always peaceful than lucrative jobs. While doing such work, you will know the secrets required to forward your career and will also grow contact and friends in the system. All this details, knowledge, and connections will help you to ascend the ladder for more remunerative jobs in embassies. 

There are various types of language jobs in the embassy, and these areas include 
1. Translators & Interpreters 
These are some of the job chances most foreign embassies provide to job aspirants from the 
entertaining country. For example, the French or Netherlands embassies in India will be requesting one or more translators and interpreters who can speak either French or Dutch along with regional language. 
2. Human Resource 
While some embassies may have their HR Department inhabited by their professionals it is another area that is frequently open for job hunters from the entertaining country. Again, this is where your expertise in the foreign language of that country can place you in a lucrative job as an executive or commanding role.
3. Economic Department
It is another area of department that has always a demand in the foreign embassies. Although your expertise in a specific foreign language may not be absolutely sufficient to earn you the job. It is still very important for job hunters with profitable experience hunting to engage such a position. You will be at task while making reports on profitable growth in the entertaining country concerned and offering sound analysis and guidance on economic matters.
4. Finance Section
Again, you will need an added qualification in fields of finance, such as an MBA in economics. Then along with your foreign language expertise, you can get a job chance in the finance department of a foreign embassy.
For instance, the US embassy in India or anywhere will need a counsellor or specialist on financial matters. It is to provide reports on financial markets, macro, and micro (economics), research, and policy making. The counsellor will also be answerable for giving replies to inquiries about their nation’s financial situations and the economy. 

5. Library Section
All embassies or associated culture centers in the world have a library section. It creates the need to have a librarian and other staff who will be accountable for taking care of books and other crucial materials in the library. Here, your expertise in a foreign language can come useful in modernizing the library and making translations where necessary.
6. Diplomatic Coordinator
Most of the embassies in India constantly look for people who assume the workings and situations of the national and international current incidents, while owning superb communication expertise. It is another outstanding job area for job hunters with foreign language expertise.
7. Research analyst and Market Researcher
All the embassies, consulates, and other political representations are introducing their government. 
They do lots of research for a diversity of reasons like symmetrical relations, the scope of business growth, increase the culture footprints in the entertaining nation and may be some other. For all these research pursuits, they engage local for research analyst or field researcher beginning. A college degree, ideally MBA and powerful systematic and communication expertise are very much essential.
Some research analyst jobs need good knowledge in a specific foreign language. It will be beneficial for those managing the research when details that may not be obtainable in English or local language and translation is required eventually. Additionally, a local citizen will perceive better about his/her country than a foreign citizen.
8. Information Technology/Science
In every embassy, IT personnel are in high demand to increase the regulation of the embassy, varying from web development to system preservation. If you think computer understanding alone will promise you instinctive application in the IT department of the foreign embassy concerned, then you are making a mistake.
A certificate financed by expertise in a foreign language is excellent for most substantial utilization with different embassies in India. The capacity to speak a foreign language as a lesser qualification makes you winner than others for such jobs. 

9. Trainer in an embassy’s culture center
There are at least thirteen culture centers associated to various foreign embassies in Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Pune, Chennai, and other parts of India providing different foreign language courses in embassies. According to my uneven calculation, roughly 300 foreign language teachers are working in these culture pinion and language learning centers across the country. While some of them are family speakers, a majority of them are Indians.
At least half of them are working with L’Alliance Francaise (a cultural wing of Embassy of France) and  Goethe-Institut / Max Mueller Bhavan (affiliated to the embassy of Germany). Plainly, there are more job chances in French and German than Portuguese or Japanese as far as foreign language teaching jobs in embassies are concerned. 

There is just one warning. The least suitability yardstick to apply for such a start is a master’s degree of highest expertise level, such as C2 (CEFR – European) or TOPIK Level 6 / JLPT N1 / HSK Level 6 (East Asian Languages). Once chosen, they will offer Initial Teacher Training through a variety of courses. Based on my personal connection, the remuneration is quite good.

10. Customer support
Every embassy employs people for customer support for plenty of processes that include various roles. 
For example, speaking abilities, undertaking document tasks, a group of information, helpdesks, sound -based jobs, accounting services, data and document processing, back-office support, document translation, and proofreading, deal, email support services, and more.
How to get a job in the Indian embassy abroad?
The answer is challenging but not difficult. If you are keen to get a job in the Indian embassy in India or abroad, you will have to sit and clear Foreign Service Exams (IFS) through the combined Civil Services Exam. Indian Government also hires personnel from other departments like SSC, IAS, IPS, IRS, Defense services, etc. In brief, almost all are government employees.
There are no particular walk-in interviews for such jobs. The Indian embassy in foreign countries does hire local citizens for different positions. However, they are locals and not Indians. 

The question is how they will learn the language. If you fix a high rank in the civil services, then you can choose IFS and later decide which foreign language to learn. You will have to learn one mandatory foreign language during your instruction after you have been selected. It is selected from a list of languages provided each year.

During the coaching, an IFS officer has the rank of Third Secretary. Once you clear the CFL test, you will be upgraded to the rank of second secretary. Earlier knowledge in any foreign language is not necessary though useful. Besides, there is also an option to obtain an Optional Foreign Language (OFL).

It does not mean there is no opening for Indians who are not government employees. Indian government does provide various job openings for Indians trained in foreign languages. There are many foreign language specialists working in a different government department varying from Defence Attaché to the Tourism Department to Information Technology. However, for such openings, you may need both competence in that realm as well as years of experience. Maybe this subject will be for another day.

The ventures of any embassy in India or abroad are not limited to the size of the building. There are many language jobs in the embassy you can do with your language expertise, either as a primary or secondary qualification. Just take your time to search and I am sure you will find something fitting. 
So snatch a job chance in Indian and foreign embassies. It is one area in which you can prosper generously with your knowledge in a foreign language.

Monday, 2 December 2019

Should I learn a Foreign Language?


The first question that comes to mind is why should I learn a Foreign Language. What benefit will I get if I learn a language? There are lots of the benefits of learning a foreign language. If you know a foreign language it can help you in various aspects of your life. It can be professional or you can plan a vacation abroad for social or personal reasons or want to add variety to your resume. It is very very essential for someone to learn at least one foreign language for anyone to keep his or her head high up in the 21st century. 
Proliferation being at its highest level, many professions require the knowledge of at least one foreign language. It depends on the nature and requirement of the work. If you are not sure if you can acquire one of the top ten international languages or not so popular languages you can read which foreign language is in demand. You may like to know French vs Spanish Vs German, Mandarin Vs. Japanese Vs. Korean or Spanish or French.
There are lots of courses available in Kolkata that help you to learn Foreign Language. Courses offered by Universities like Kolkata, Rabindra Bharati or Jadavpur University is for the serious people who want to pursue a career in respective languages. Other institutes like A1 Palium Institute of Language offer short-term Certificate Courses in Language. They conduct classes in small groups which helps better assimilation and faster learning. Incase anyone is interested to appear in DELF, DELE or Goethe exams then they help in preparations. After all, a ready person is a successful person!


Some people have an eagerness to learn a new language. However, most do so because they feel it can be their path to prosperity and peace, it will get them to their fairyland of employment and wealth, which is cool.  Everyone wants to do well in life.